Normal Anatomy

A Trusted Foot and Ankle Surgeon in Nowra and Shellharbour

The Anatomy of foot and ankle is complex, they both work in unity to provide balance, stability, movement and Propulsion.

It consists of 26 bones, 33 joints, Muscles, Tendons, Ligaments, Blood vessels, nerves, and soft tissue.


The ankle joint consists of three bones that connect the leg to the foot. The tibia (shin bone) and the fibula, articulate (connect) to the talus (ankle bone) at the Tibiotalar joint (ankle joint) allowing the foot to move up and down.

The bony protrusions that we can see and feel on the ankle are:

  • Lateral Malleolus – the outer ankle bone formed by the distal end of the fibula.
  • Medial Malleolus – the inner ankle bone formed by the distal end of the tibia.


The foot can be divided into three anatomical sections called the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot. The hindfoot consists of the Talus bone (ankle bone) and the Calcaneus bone (heel bone). The Calcaneus bone is the largest bone in your foot and joins the Talus bone at the subtalar joint. The hindfoot connects the midfoot to the ankle at the transverse tarsal joint.

The midfoot contains five tarsal bones – the navicular bone, the cuboid bone, and 3 cuneiform bones. The midfoot is responsible for forming the arches of your feet and acts as a shock absorber when walking or running. The midfoot connects to the forefoot at the five tarsometatarsal joints.

The forefoot consists of your toe bones (phalanges), and metatarsal bones (long bones) in your feet. Phalanges connect to metatarsals at the ball of the foot by joints called metatarsophalangeal joints. Each toe has three phalange bones and two joints, while the big toe contains two phalanges bones, one joint, and two tiny, round sesamoid bones that enable the toe to move up and down. Sesamoid bones are bones that develop inside of a tendon over a bony prominence. The first metatarsal bone connected to the big toe is the shortest and thickest of the metatarsals. This bone is important for its role in propulsion and weight bearing.

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Dr Anil Goudar is a trusted orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon in the Nowra and Shellharbour area. Call us to see how we can help with your treatment today.